Sunday, January 26, 2020
Link between Sexual Abuse and Feelings of Shame in Victims Women and Shame: Exploring the Link Between Sexual Abuse and the Shame Experienced by Victims Abstract Change in the culture of the United States and other countries is allowing for more discussion on the topic of sexual abuse, but it has yet to become the norm. Survivors of sexual abuse experience various negative consequences, including shame and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Shame includes, but is not limited to, feeling trapper, powerless, and isolated (Brown, 2006). PTSD experienced by survivors of sexual abuse can lead one to withdraw and succumb to the negative and detrimental effects of sexual abuse (Wilson & Scarpa, 2014). To reduce the severity of PTSD and combat the negative effects of shame on those who experience it, specifically female survivors of sexual assault, it is suggested that there be a focus on deep and sincere connection provided by supportive women figures and other women who have experienced sexual abuse. This support, in addition to individual and group psychotherapy, may provide the needed empowerment to overcome shame and decrease PTSD symptoms ex perienced by survivors of sexual abuse. Women and Shame: Exploring the Link Between Sexual Abuse and the Shame Experienced by Victims Sexual abuse is disturbingly prevalent, particularly among college students. The American Association of Universities (AAU) found that the prevalence of sexual assault in college was 22.2% for undergraduate women, and, of the women who were in their senior year of college, 27.2% reported having been sexually assaulted during their four years (Cantor et al., 2015). However, disclosing this information has not always been easy and still proves to be a challenge. It is a barrier that is at times insurmountable for victims of sexual abuse. Unfortunately, in the United States today, and all around the world for that matter, the act of sexual abuse is not tabooÃ¢â¬âexposing it and talking about it is (Turner, 1993). Despite research statistics indicating that 16% of adult American women will experience abuse before the age of 18 (Jackson, Calhoun, Amick, Meddever, & Habif, 1990), society has shied away from the discussion of sexual abuse become commonplace in America. Moreover, sexual abuse and its negative effects are all encompassing and prove difficult to overcome. Sexual abuse can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Sexual abuse also affects the relationships that survivors have with others. Survivors may feel that their experience is a private narrative that should not be shared with others, or they may be concerned that others may not think that what happened to them was truly rape or assault; therefore, victims may not choose to disclose this experience to anyone (Filipas & Ullman, 2001). In order to change this negative thinking, women need to provide deep and sincere connection to female abuse survivors that will allow them to feel supported and empowered. Because feelings such as fear, shame, doubt, and confusion post abuse may lead to avoidance coping and a potential diagnosis of PTSD, understanding the negative effects of sexual abuse is vital to understanding how supportive women can help female victims to overcome feeling trapped, powerless, and isolated. According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA), PTSD is a psychiatric disorder that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event, including rape or other violent personal assault (Ã¢â¬Å"What is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder,Ã¢â¬ 2017). People who suffer from PTSD experience disturbing thoughts and feelings related to their traumatic experience for long periods of time after the event has passed. A study done by Feiring and Taska (2005) found that women who had experienced sexual abuse and reported high levels of shame after one year were at greater risk for experiencing high levels of shame after six years, as well. This type of residual shame is characteristic of PTSD in that survivors experience it for long periods of time after their traumatic experience. If more can be done to help survivors of sexual abuse within the first year after their experience, they may be empowered to combat the negative effects of shame and overcome the statistics. This help can be provided through support, understanding, patience, and providing a safe place for survivors of sexual abuse to share their experience. PTSD due to sexual abuse is not the only psychological disorder that affects victims. Research done by Molnar, Buka, and Kessler (2001) found that sexual abuse occurring during childhood was highly correlated with the onset of 14 various psychological disorders in women. In addition, research done by Wilson and Scarpa (2014) indicated that childhood sexual abuse is associated with higher amounts of PTSD symptoms than other forms of childhood abuse. When considering the implications of PTSD, the long-term effects it has on those suffering it, and the potential onset of 14 various psychological disorders (Molnar, Buka, & Kessler , 2001), childhood sexual abuse can lead to a lifelong struggle with mental health and shame if not addressed. Female survivors of sexual abuse can receive the necessary support through deep and sincere connection with other womenÃ¢â¬âconnection that is needed to combat PTSD. Sexual abuse is not a one-time action. Sexual abuse of any type leaves one with feelings of worthlessness, shame, and insecurities that require intensive care and effort to overcome. Women cannot be left alone post abuse to question their worth. Researchers have looked to strengthen the link in the relationship between shame and sexual assault in order to provide more clarity for those seeking answers. Studies demonstrated that shame is often a mediator between an experience such as sexual assault and PTSD (DeCou, Cole, Lynch, Wong, Matthews, 2017). While few studies have been done to examine what role social connections play in the recovery process, Hyman, Gold, and Cott (2003) suggested that the most influential predictor of PTSDÃ¢â¬âself esteem might be able to offset feelings typically experienced with shame. Because shame is a mediator between sexual assault and PTSD, targeting it by means of connection will minimize its power and role in bringing those symptoms to the forefront. In addition, because 70% of sexual abuse victims will tell someone about their experienceÃ¢â¬âtypically a friend (Fisher, Daigle, Cullen, & Tanner, 2003), overcoming the barriers that delay disclosure may prove helpful in providing a safer and more supportive environment for survivors of sexual abuse. Survivors may be able to seek the support they need and share the motions that they are feeling in a much more efficient manner (Ullman, Foynes, & Tang, 2001). Because of the safety that close relationships can provide, the focus on their role in recovery must be emphasized, because survivors can benefit by sharing the emotions of that experience instead of carrying them alone. One of the most prevalent emotions felt by victims of sexual abuse is shame. Shame is an intensely painful feeling or experience of believing one is flawed and therefore unworthy of acceptance and belonging. This strong emotion can lead survivors to feel trapped, powerless, and isolated (Brown, 2006). No victim of sexual abuse should have to face these experiences and emotions alone. Although the shame experienced by female victims of sexual abuse can be a difficult psychological construct to measure consistently across sample populations, deep and sincere connections among women, along with individual and group psychotherapy, may play a vital role in empowering females to combat the negative effects of shame. Women who maintain supportive interpersonal relationships post-abuse are uniquely empowered to feel less trapped, powerless, and isolated. Interpersonal Relationships While those directly involved with sexual abuse are the true victims, friends, peers, and family members to whom this negative experience is disclosed are also impacted by the negative consequences. Victims of sexual abuse are typically not prepared for what they experience, and neither are those they reach out to for support. Each person to whom this information is disclosed responds differently. Wile the majority tend to respond positively, there are some who do respond negatively (Ahrens & Campbell, 2000). Some results have shown that negative reactions include, but are not limited to, feelings sorry for the victims, blaming the assault on the victim instead of the perpetrator, and minimizing the seriousness and effect of the event (Popiel & Susskind, 1985). This negative response typically comes from a place of unpreparedness. Sexual abuse has far-reaching effects, and those who are indirectly affected (and their response to the survivors) should be examined. By providing education to peers and familial supports, in addition to providing a safe place for survivors of sexual assault to disclose their abuse experience, peers and familial supports will likely respond in a way that fosters trust, confidence, and courage. According to George, Winfield, and Blazer (1992), the majority (59% to 91%) of sexual assault victims disclose the event to family and friends because they view them as helpful and/or supportive. Very few report the information to formal agencies such as the police, the hospital, or a formal rape center. Research done by Ullman (1996) tested friends of rape victims and determined that participants did not feel more distressed than normal when they were told their friend was a victim of sexual assault. The results further showed that the friends were angry at the perpetrator and wanted to seek revenge but otherwise maintained positive feelings towards the survivor (Ullman, 1996). Because the results can vary from friend to friend, it is imperative that friends, family members, and supporters of survivors of sexual abuse are educated on their role in the process of recovery and healing. Sexual abuse affects more than just those who experience it first hand, it also impacts those who are trusted enough to help bear the weight and seriousness of this horrible experience. Exploring shame, one of the consequences of sexual abuse more thoroughly, will provide clarity to the healing process that survivors of undergo and the important role that women play in empowering female survivors to overcome their experience. Oftentimes, abuse-related shame is created by the secretive context under which it takes place, including threats to stay silent and not disclose the event to anyone and condemnation from the perpetrator towards the victim (Feiring & Taska, 2005). This shame can then lead one to feel trapped, powerless, and isolated (Brown, 2006). Shame requires a sense of self and an ability to compare oneself against a cultural standard (Feiring & Taska, 2005). Having a better understanding of shame will not only allow female survivors of sexual abuse to take steps towards healing, but will also help peers, family members, and friends to support survivors along this path. Feeling Less Trapped The word trapped is often thought of in the context of not being able to escape. Female survivors of sexual abuse often feel trapped by their experience. Researchers found that a consistent result of shame is an avoidance response so severe tat the individual prefers to hide rather than expose themselves (Barrett, Zahn-Waxler, & Cole, 1993). Additionally, shame promotes cognitive avoidance which is an intentional effort to avoid dealing with a stressor (Berliner & Wheeler, 1987). Because shame produces avoidance, both cognitively and behaviorally, survivors, as well as those who support them, need to understand the significant effect that deep and sincere connections can have on survivors while working through abuse-related shame. Turner (1993) stated that Ã¢â¬Å"the process of sharing feelings with others and realizing that other people feel the same way provides a sense of relief and makes people feel less frightened and not so aloneÃ¢â¬ (para. 12). Being able to reach out for h elp and seek connection, the opposite of avoidance, will likely improve the survivorÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to overcome shame and empower her to fight the feelings of isolation that she experiences. Feeling Less Powerless As suggested by Brown (2006), sexual abuse survivors find that producing effects strong enough to counter the shame caused by sexual abuse very difficult. Because shame produces so many emotions, survivors have difficulty feeling empowered enough to get to the core of their abuse and begin healing. Survivors are often stuck in the secondary emotions: shame, guilt, anxiousness, helplessness, and hurt (E. Harwood, personal communication, November 1, 2017). In a study done by Berliner and Wheeler (1987), survivors of sexual abuse typically got to the core of their abuse and began healing by gradually exposing their abuse situation through talking about or abreaction, the expression and emotional discharge of repressed emotion (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2017). If female survivors of sexual abuse can experience abreaction, in addition to the support of deep and sincere connections with other women, then they may be able to reach the core of their abuse and begin to explore to real emotions that they are feeling. Survivors will likely gain power over their abuse each time it is exposed through the help of therapists, peers, and family supports. Survivors may begin to feel empowered and start to overcome the complexity of the shame that they experience. They may also find the power to keep seeking connections necessary to overcome feelings of isolation. Feeling Less Isolated The confusion, betrayal, and loneliness that survivors of sexual abuse experience are conflicting emotions and tend to run deep. Because sexual abuse can come by means of close friends, family members, trusted individuals (or associates), isolation seems to be the fitting response when considering that a trusted person could be the perpetrator of such acts. Survivors typically need to rebuild trust, and this can be done through forming deep and sincere connections with women among whom they feel comfortable or women who have experienced something similar. Bass and Davis (1988) found that as women speak to each other about past traumatic experiences, they are able to put more distance between themselves and the pain. That ability led survivors to feel less victimized and more connected with those to whom they were talking (Bass & Davis, 1988). If female survivors can come to trust the deep and sincere connections the form with fellow women, ten they will be able to feel less isolated through talking about their experiences. In addition, survivors will likely feel more empathy and sympathy from those around them and begin to feel that they are not alone but rather surround by people who understand them and their experiences. They will begin to feel connected. Empowerment through Connection Human beings thrive off of feelings of belonging. On MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarch of Needs, the need to belong is most important after basic needs and safety and security. Further, it is often said that the opposite of addiction is not sobriety but rather connection. If connection is powerful enough to help one to overcome or avoid addiction completely, how important is it then for one seeking to overcome the shame that comes from sexual abuse? Baumeister and Leary (2000) described the Ã¢â¬Å"need to belong or need to develop and maintain meaningful social bonds as a Ã¢â¬Ëfundamental human motivationÃ¢â¬â¢ that lies beneath a myriad of human interaction and behaviorÃ¢â¬ (P#). On that premise, the desire for connection and feelings of belonging come naturally and should not be ignored. In a study done by Llabre and Hadi (1997) that examined children in Kuwait who had experienced trauma, data showed that girls who experienced trauma and perceived low levels of support experienced the highest levels of PTSD symptoms. By providing support to female survivors of sexual abuse through deep and sincere connection from fellow women, these PTSD symptoms may diminish. Whether survivors of sexual abuse prefer avoidance or connection, as observed earlier, friends and familial support must be understanding. If the proper support can be given to victims soon after the abuse occurs, then they symptoms of PTSD may decrease and the natural desire for connection and belonging will likely be satisfied. That help alone may empower female survivors of sexual assault to push through the shame they feel and move forward through the process of healing. The need for connection is not merely a desire to have friends. Satisfying the need for connection can help one to avoid depression, anxiety, and loneliness. The need for connection also elicits goal-oriented behavior (Baumeister & Leary, 2000). In a study done on 160 women who had experienced sexual abuse in their childhood, women who perceived that they had social support reported a significant reduction in depression and other symptoms of PTSD (Hobfoll et al., 2002). Knowing that a need for connection will inspire goal-oriented behavior and combat depression, loneliness, and anxiety, support provided by women can help to counteract the feelings of isolation and powerlessness that female survivors of sexual abuse experience. By building and strengthening deep and sincere connections, survivors will feel less isolated and be empowered to combat the negative effects of shame. Sharing Experiences Ã While group therapy and individual therapy are great additions to the therapeutic process, sharing the experience outside of therapeutic groups is an additional support. According to a national study done in Sweden, 46% of all Swedish women surveyed had experienced some form of sexual violence since the age of 15 (Ormon, Sunnqvist, Bahtsevani, Tostensson Levander, 2016). Because of these results, further research was done in a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s general psychiatric clinic. The follow-up study found that women preferred to share their abuse experiences with their peers more so than with staff (Ormon, Sunnqvist, Bahtsevani, Tostensson Levander, 2016). This research demonstrated that survivors of sexual assault tend to be more willing to disclose their experience to trusted women or those who have experienced something similar. Because of this level of trust that is extended to those without therapeutic licensure, fellow women must be aware of the impact they have o those who wish to sh are their experiences. Deep and sincere connection outside of individual and group psychotherapy may supplement the help that is provided there. While research on the view point of friends and family is minimal, some research has been conducted on the matter. Ahrens and Campbell (2000) reviewed the responses of friends to survivors and found that those to whom the information is disclosed are conflicted by wanting to help and support but feel powerless and unhelpful. These same researchers surveyed college students again and found that women are more empathic, especially if they have their own history of sexual assault, blame the experience on the survivor less often than men, and see more positive changes in their relationship with the survivor (Ahrens & Campbell, 2000). Contrary to these findings, Banyard, Maynihan, Walsh, Cohn, and Ward (2010) cited significant responses indicating that friends to whom sexual assault is disclosed feel anger and distress. Because of the inconsistency in responses to sexual assault, there is a need to continue educating peer and familial supports on the role the play in the healing process. By providing this education and spending more time talking about their role, survivors may be able to find deep and sincere relationships with those to whom they disclose their experience to and will likely be able to overcome the shame that stems from sexual assault. Conclusion A community, a culture, a friend, or a family member that provides safety and refuge for survivors of sexual abuse is positioned at the forefront of changes that need to be made. Sexual abuse is experience by more friends and family than is made known and healthy and positive support is owed to them. While sexual abuse is an emerging topic in the world of open discussions, understanding the trail of negative effects that is left behind in its wake is only beginning to be explored. PTSD experienced by survivors of sexual abuse is long term and fosters feelings of inadequacy and hopelessness. In addition, survivors that experience high levels of PTSD within the immediate year following their experience are likely to maintain that high level for a minimum of six years (Feiring & Taska, 2005). PTSD can also accompany 14 other psychological disorders that women are prone to develop after experiencing sexual abuse (Molnar, Buka, & Kessler, 2001). It is difficult and potentially impossible to determine a fix-all for symptoms and effects of PTSD, but it is not impossible to challenge it. PTSD can be challenged and combatted through deep and sincere connection that allows survivors of sexual assault to feel empowered, heard, and supported. Fortunately for survivors of sexual abuse, studies have also shown that they will often be positively received when disclosing their traumatic experience to friends, family, and trusted figures (Ahrens & Campbell, 2000). Unfortunately, there will be some who perceive them negatively, blame the vent on them, and cut off communication and support (Popiel & Susskind, 1985), but by allowing for sexual abuse to be a commonplace conversation and providing safe settings for that to happen, the negative reactions be minimized further. With this positive support, female survivors of sexual abuse will begin to work through the negative effects of abuse-related shame: feeling trapped, powerless, and isolated. Survivors of sexual abuse, women in particular, need each other. By providing deep and sincere connection to those effected by sexual abuse, they will likely feel empowered to overcome the shame that envelops them, because they will feel connected, they will feel included, and they will ex pose the abuse that they experienced. Additional research on the effects of deep and sincere relationships among women should be conducted to better understand their influence as more is being done to provide help for survivors of sexual abuse. Providing education on the importance of supportive peers and families and the positive effects that they have on victims may decrease the amount of psychological disorders and long-term effects that sexual abuse can leave in its wake. Research should therefore be done that explores more in depth the emotion of shame and the role that it plays n recovery from sexual abuse. Ã References Ahrens, C. E., & Campbell, R. (2000). Assisting rape victims as they recover from rape: The impact on friends.Ã Journal of Interpersonal Violence,Ã 15(9), 959-986. doi:10.1177/088626000015009004 American Psychiatric Association. (2017). What is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder? Retrieved from https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/ptsd/what-is-ptsd Banyard, V. L., Moynihan, M. M., Walsh, W. A., Cohn, E. S., & Ward, S. (2010). Friends of survivors: The community impact of unwanted sexual experiences.Ã Journal of Interpersonal Violence,Ã 25(2), 242-256. doi:10.1177/0886260509334407 Barrett, K. C., Zahn-Waxler, C., & Cole, P. M. (1993). Avoiders versus amenders: Implications for the investigation of guilt and shame during toddlerhood? Cognitionand Emotion, 7, 481-505. Bass, E., & Davis, L. (1988).Ã The courage to heal: A guide for women survivors of child sexual abuse. New York, NY, US: Perennial Library/Harper & Row Publishers. Retrieved fromÃ https://www.lib.byu.edu/cgibin/remoteauth.pl?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=1988-97592-000&site=ehost-live&scope=site Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (2000). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. In E. T. Higgins, A. W. Kruglanski, E. T. Higgins (Ed) & A. W. Kruglanski (Ed) Eds.), (pp. 24-49). New York, NY, US: Psychology Press. Retrieved fromÃ https://www.lib.byu.edu/cgibin/remoteauth.pl?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2000-12688-001&site=ehost-live&scope=site Berliner, L., & Wheeler, J. R. (1987). Treating the effects of sexual abuse on children.Ã Journal of Interpersonal Violence,Ã 2(4), 415-434. doi:10.1177/088626058700200407 Brown, B. (2006). Shame resilience theory: A grounded theory study on women and shame.Ã Families in Society,Ã 87(1), 43-52. doi:10.1606/1044-3894.3483 Cantor,Ã D.,Ã Fisher,Ã B.,Ã Chibnall,Ã S.,Ã Townsend,Ã R.,Ã Lee,Ã H.,Ã Bruce,Ã C., &Ã Thomas,Ã G.Ã (2015). Report on the AAU Campus Climate Survey on Sexual Assault and Sexual Misconduct.Ã Washington, DC: Association of American Universities. Retrieved fromÃ https://www.aau.edu/uploadedFiles/AAU_Publications/AAU_Reports/Sexual_Assault_Campus_Survey/AAU_Campus_Climate_Survey_12_14_15.pdf DeCou, C. R., Cole, T. T., Lynch, S. M., Wong, M. M., & Matthews, K. C. (2017). Assault-related shame mediates the association between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress.Ã Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy,Ã 9(2), 166-172. doi:10.1037/tra000018 Feiring, C., & Taska, L. S. (2005). The persistence of shame following sexual abuse: A longitudinal look at risk and recovery.Ã Child Maltreatment,Ã 10(4), 337-349. doi:10.1177/1077559505276686 Filipas, H. H., & Ullman, S. E. (2001). Social reactions to sexual assault victims from various support sources.Ã Violence and Victims,Ã 16(6), 673-692. Retrieved fromÃ https://www.lib.byu.edu/cgi-bin/remoteauth.pl?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2002-12346-006&site=ehost-live&scope=site Fisher, B. S., Daigle, L. E., Cullen, F. T., & Turner, M. G. (2003). Reporting sexual victimization to the police and others: Results from a national-level study of college women.Ã Criminal Justice and Behavior,Ã 30(1), 6-38. doi:10.1177/0093854802239161 George, L. K., Winfield, I., & Blazer, D. G. (1992). Sociocultural factors in sexual assault: Comparison of two representative samples of women.Ã Journal of Social Issues,Ã 48(1), 105-125. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1992.tb01160 Hobfoll, S. E., Bansal, A., Schurg, R., Young, S., Pierce, C. A., Hobfoll, I., & Johnson, R. (2002). The impact of perceived child physical and sexual abuse history on Native American womens psychological well-being and AIDS risk.Ã Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,Ã 70(1), 252-257. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.70.1.252 Hyman, S. M., Gold, S. N., & Cott, M. A. (2003). Forms of social support that moderate PTSD in childhood sexual abuse survivors.Ã Journal of Family Violence,Ã 18(5), 295-300. doi:1025117311660 Jackson, J. L., Calhoun, K. S., Amick, A. E., Maddever, H. M., & Habif, V. L. (1990). Young adult women who report childhood interfamilial sexual abuse: Subsequent adjustment.Ã Archives of Sexual Behavior,Ã 19(3), 211-221. doi:10.1007/BF01541547 Llabre, M. M., & Hadi, F. (1997). Social support and psychological distress in Kuwaiti boys and girls exposed to the gulf crisis.Ã Journal of Clinical Child Psychology,Ã 26(3), 247-255. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp2603_3 Merriam-Webster Dictionary. (2017). Abreaction. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. Molnar, B. E., Buka, S. L., & Kessler, R. C. (2001). Child sexual abuse and subsequent psychopathology: Results from the national comorbidity survey.Ã American Journal of Public Health,Ã 91(5), 753-760. doi:10.2105/AJPH.91.5.753 Ormon, K., Sunnqvist, C., Bahtsevani, C., & Levander, M. T. (2016). Disclosure of abuse among female patients within general psychiatric care: A cross sectional study.Ã BMC Psychiatry,Ã 16Ã Retrieved fromÃ https://www.lib.byu.edu/cgibin/remoteauth.pl?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2016-15202-001&site=ehost-live&scope=site Popiel, D. A., & Susskind, E. C. (1985). The impact of rape: Social support as a moderator of stress.Ã American Journal of Community Psychology,Ã 13(6), 645-676. doi:10.1007/BF00929794 Turner, S. (1993). Talking about sexual abuse: The value of short-term groups for women survivors.Ã Journal of Group Psychotherapy, Psychodrama & Sociometry,Ã 46(3), 110-121. Retrieved from https://www.lib.byu.edu/cgibin/remoteauth.pl?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=1994-26536-001&site=ehost-live&scope=site Ullman, S. E. (1996). Do social reactions to sexual assault victims vary by support provider?Ã Violence and Victims,Ã 11(2), 143-157. Retrieved fromÃ https://www.lib.byu.edu/cgi-bin/remoteauth.pl?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=1997-07861-004&site=ehost-live&scope=site Ullman, S. E., Foynes, M. M., & Tang, S. S. S. (2001). Benefits and barriers to disclosing sexual trauma: A contextual approach.Ã Journal of Trauma & Dissociation,Ã 11(2), 127-133. doi:10.1080/15299730903502904 Wilson, L. C., & Scarpa, A. (2014). Childhood abuse, perceived social support, and posttraumatic stress symptoms: A moderation model.Ã Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy,Ã 6(5), 512-518. doi:10.1037/a0032635 Appendix Figure 1. Type of response experienced by survivors of sexual assault when disclosing their experience to family and/or friends. Adapted from Ã¢â¬Å"Assault-Related Shame Mediates the Association Between Negative Social Reactions to Disclosure of Sexual Assault and Psychological Distress,Ã¢â¬ by C. DeCou, T. Cole, S. Lynch, M. Wong, & K. Matthews, 2017, Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, (2)9, p. 169.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Marketing Plan Of SUNSILK SUNSILK Prepared for: Asif Mahfuz Adjunct Faculty of School Of Business University Of Liberal Arts Bangladesh Username: Sabrin Trisha Password: ZX7Yoxd05bpP Prepared By: StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Name| StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Id| Sabrina Haque| 102011026| Course Name : Principles of Marketing Course Code : BUS 206 Section : 04 Submission Date : 30 May, 2012 Spring 2012 Letter of Transmittal 5 May, 2012 Mr. Asif Mahfuz Adjunct Faculty of School Of Business University Of Liberal Arts BangladeshHouse # 56, Road # 4/A (Satmosjid Road) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh. Dear Sir; Subject: Submission of the Final Report on Ã¢â¬Å"Sunsilk(hair care consumer productÃ¢â¬ . We are very glad to submit the report on Ã¢â¬Å"SunsilkÃ¢â¬ that you have assigned. This is our report where we have tried to find out the key factors that you assigned upon us. This report extends our knowledge and will help us in the future. Thank you very much for giving us such kind of opportunity to e nrich our knowledge and skills under your observation.We would like to thank you for your valuable guidance in every problem we had and the precious time that you gave us. We will be available for any further clarifications required. Sincerely, StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Name| StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Id| Signature| Sabrina Haque| 102011026| | Farhana Rahman| 102011009| | Farhan Tanvir| 102011014| | Sharmin Sultana| 102011008| | Table of contents Sl. No| Title| Page No| | Executive Summary| | 1| Background of Sunsilk a) History b) Milestone| 78| 2| Company Analysis of Sunsilk| 10| 3| Mission of Sunsilk| 11| | Vision of Sunsilk| 11| 5| Goal of Sunsilk| 11| 6| Segmentation | 11| 7| 4pÃ¢â¬â¢s of Sunsilk a) Product b) Price c) Promotion i. Media plan for Sunsilk ii. Creating an advertise for Sunsilk d) Place | 121415161720| 8| Market Scenario of Sunsilk a) Target Market b) Market Share c) Mind Share d) Heart Share| 21212222| 9| Competitive Strategies of Sunsilk a) Defining a Strategic Objective b) Expa nding the Total MarketÃ¢â¬â i. New Customer ii. More Usage iii. Regular Customer c) Choosing General StrategyÃ¢â¬â i.Flank Attack ii. Frontal Attack iii. Bypass Attack| 232324| 10| Competitive Rivalry Positions of Sunsilk a) Availability of Many/Equally Balance Comp Competitors b) Industrial Growth DeclinesÃ¢â¬â i. Industrial Stage ii. Growth Stage Maturity iii. Stage Decline Stage c) BCG Marketing of Sunsilk d) High Fixed Cost & Storage Cost of Sunsilk e) Low Switching Cost of Sunsilk| 2525262727| 11| Threat of Substitution Product of Sunsilk a) BuyerÃ¢â¬â¢s Low Switching Cost b) Substitute ProductÃ¢â¬â¢s Price is Lower c)Substitution ProductÃ¢â¬â¢s Quality &Performance is Greater/Equal to Existence Product| 282828| 12| THE POWER OF BUYERS a) Buyers are Larger and Few in Number b) Buyers purchase a large portion of IndustryÃ¢â¬â¢s total output c) Buyers switching costs low d) Buyers can pose threat to integrate backward into the SellerÃ¢â¬â¢s Industry| 29303030| 13| THE POWER OF SUPPLIERS a) Suppliers are large and few in number b) Suitable Substitution Products Are Not Available c) Individual Buyers Are Not Large Customers of Suppliers d) Suppliers Goods Are Critical to BuyerÃ¢â¬â¢s Success e) SupplierÃ¢â¬â¢s Products Create High Switching Cost f) Suppliers Can Pose Threat to Forward Integration to BuyerÃ¢â¬â¢s Industry| 313132323232| 14| SWOT Analysis a) Strength, b) Weakness, c) Opportunities, d) Threats. | 33333333| 15| Recommendations| 35| 16| Conclusion| 36| 17| Annexure| 37| EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Sunsilk ShampooÃ¢â¬â¢s are under the flag of Unilever is a very famous international product. Sunsilk was launched in the UK in 1954 & by 1959 it was available in 18 different countries worldwide. Sunsilk is the largest beauty shampoo brand in the Bangladesh. Currently, Sunsilk products are available in over 50 countries throughout Asia, Middle East, North Africa and Latin America, where is known as Sedal.This executive summery describes the history, company analysis, mission, vision, 4pÃ¢â¬â¢s of Sunsilk shampoo such as- variety in consumer products, price, distribution objectives, Competitive Strategies of Sunsilk, Competitive rivalry position of Sunsilk, B. C. G Marketing of Sunsilk, Threat of substituteÃ¢â¬â¢s products. Mind share, Market share and Heart share are also included here, which helps to understand about consumer perception about the Sunsilk product. What competitive strategies Sunsilk follows is also included in this report. The Power of Buyer & Power of Supplies to Sunsilk is not a threat to Sunsilk shampoo. Marketing programs and promotional activities are clearly and briefly covered in this report. Finally, in the end recommendations are given that what strategy should Sunsilk follow to meet the strategies and market share of their competitors. 1. Background of SunsilkSunsilk ShampooÃ¢â¬â¢s are under the flag of Unilever is a very famous international product. Sunsilk is the largest beauty shampoo brand in the Bangladesh. Positioned as the Ã¢â¬ËHair Expert' by 1959, it was available in eighteen different countries worldwide. Currently, Sunsilk products are available in over 50 countries throughout Asia, The Middle East, North Africa and Latin America, where is known as Sedal. 1. a) History Sunsilk was launched in the UK in 1954, and by 1959 it was available in 18 different countries worldwide. At the time, Sunsilk had an advantage over other shampoos in the market as it only needed one application, and so meant washing less natural oils from the hair. In 1956, Sunsilk cream shampoo for dry hair was launched. * In 1958, a new transparent polythene tube for the liquid shampoo was introduced as an alternative large size pack to the bottle. Sunsilk was also available in such tubes. * In 1959, it was available in eighteen countries worldwide. * In 1960, Sunsilk Tonic shampoo was launched, containing skin healing ingredient * Allenton Ã¢â¬â designed to help keep the sc alp free from infection. * In 1961, Sunsilk Liquid shampoo was re-launched to Sunsilk Beauty, because Ã¢â¬ËLiquidÃ¢â¬â¢ in the name, originally used to distinguish the product from powdered shampoos had become meaningless as the majority of shampoos were now in liquid form. In 1962, Sunsilk was marketed as a range of shampoos for different hair types. Sunsilk significantly improved product formula and launched new variants in 1966: the first major shampoo to contain oliv oil, which acted as conditioner to make hair soft and manageable; shampoo for dull hair, which restored hairÃ¢â¬â¢s natural shine; lemon shampoo for greasy hair with deep cleansing ingredients. * Sunsilk hair spray was first launched in 1964 to enter an expanding hair-spray market, but in 1966 a new product formula was developed which gave hold, even in damp weather whilst still caring for hair. The hair spray contained a French perfume and could easily be removed by brushing or shampooing it out. In 1969, all Sunsilk shampoo was re-packaged in new PVC bottles, which were larger than traditional glass bottles for the same price. * Sunsilk conditioner was launched in 1971 with three variants for dry, normal and greasy hair. In 1973, Sunsilk launched an aerosol dispensed setting lotion. An economy size shampoo bottle was introduced for Sunsilk in 1974. * In 1975, Sunsilk became the biggest name in hair care with 1,000,000 packs being sold every week. * In 1980, the whole Sunsilk range was re-launched, with improved formulations and packaging design to bring the brand into the 1980s. * In 1985, Sunsilk styling mousse was launched and 2 years later a conditioning mousse followed. In 1989, Sunsilk introduced with three variants related to hair type endorsement of a hair stylist was the first step in building the image of brand as health care expert. * In 2000, to strengthen the brand UPL decided to prelaunch Sunsilk premium range consisting of four variants in January. * In 2001, Sunsilk move d into the hair colourant market for Asian-type dark hair, offering a range of seven permanent colors from natural black to copper with purple, red and gold tints. * In 2003, Sunsilk launched a new range of shampoos and conditioners, which were developed to meet womenÃ¢â¬â¢s hair needs and reflect the way women, think about their hair.The fake institute (a trademark by Sedal) Ã¢â¬Å"Elida Hair InstituteÃ¢â¬ developed the products in response to market research. Each product contained a unique formulation of ingredients, combining the best from natural and scientific worlds to help combat common hair problems. 1. b) Milestone Sunsilk starts working as consumer product from 1954 in Uk and now it is an international product. In these days Sunsilk did some special achievements which smoothed its way. Such as Ã¢â¬â Years| Activities | 1954| Sunsilk first launched in the UK. | 1955| First advertisement of Sunsilk appeared on TV. | 1959| Available in 18 countries worldwide. | 1964| Launch of Sunsilk hair spray. | 1968| Sunsilk shampoo re-packaged in PVC bottles. | 1971| Launch of Sunsilk conditioner. | 975| Sunsilk became the biggest name in hair care. | 1989| Introduced 3 variants related to hair type endorsement| 2000| Prelaunch Sunsilk premium range consisting of four variants| 2003| Sunsilk glossy magazine launched in Argentina| 2008| Social networking site Gang of Girls was introduced in India. | 2. Company Analysis of Sunsilk Name | Sunsilk Shampoo| Logo| | Category | Consumer Product | First Launched In| 1954| First Launched At| United Kingdom| Produced By| Unilever Group| Main Theme Of This Product | It knows you, and hence knows exactly what your hair needs| Total Hair Expert | 7| Available In | 50 countries throughout Asia. | Sector | FMCG|USP | Popular hair care brand having product for all types of hair| Tagline/ Slogan | For Expert Ã¢â¬â Touched Hair; Life CanÃ¢â¬â¢t Wait; All you need is Sunsilk| Segment | Personal Hair Care Shampoo availab le in multiple variants| Target Group| Girls in the age group from 16 to 40| Positioning | The Sunsilk hair care range provides a complete hair care solution and functions as a 3-step combination of cleansing, nourishing and manageability| 3. Mission Of Sunsilk SunsilkÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is to add vitality to life. We meet everyday needs for personal care with brands that help people feel good, look good and get more out of life. 4. Vision Of Sunsilk To earn the love and respect of India, by making a real difference to every consumer is the xision of Sunsilk 5. Goal Of SunsilkSunsilk was launched in the UK in 1954. It was available in eighteen different countries worldwide. Currently, Sunsilk products are available in over 50 countries throughout Asia, The Middle East, North Africa and Latin America. SunsilkÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is to be the number one shampoo of the whole consumer product market as soon as possible. 6. Segmentation | Child| Female| Male| High Price| Johnson| Fiama D WillsDo ve, Loreal | Revlon,Loreal| Low Price| Meril| Clear,Head & Shoulder| Sunsilk,Clinic Plus| 7. 4pÃ¢â¬â¢s of Sunsilk 7. a) Product Currently, the range consists of: * Yellow Sunsilk with Bio Proteins from Vegetable Extracts: Normal hair needs wholesome nourishment.New Sunsilk with Bio Protein extracted from Vegetable milk has nutrients that deeply penetrate each hair strand, to nourish it leaving hair strong and beautiful. * Black Sunsilk with Melanin from Plant Extracts: Dull hair needs a rich black shine. New Sunsilk with Melanin extracted from plants serves this purpose very effectively. It helps in the growth and retention of the black color of hair, giving it a rich black shine. * Green Sunsilk with Fruitamins Vitamins from fruit Extracts: Thin and limp hair needs extra body and volume. New sunsilk with Fruitamins has natural extracts from fruit that contains Vitamins. These vitamins help in giving extra body, shine and amazing manageability to the thinning and lifeless hair. Pi nk Sunsilk with yoghurt proteins : Dry hair needs wholesome conditioning, extra shine and style. New Sunsilk with yoghurt proteins makes the dry hair full of life. Its especial ingredients moisturize each hair right to its tips leaving it shiny and beautiful. * Orange Sunsilk with active nutrients from Citrus Extracts: The advanced formula of orange Sunsilk is the result of the latest research. This shampoo is especially designed for oily hair type that looks flat and greasy due to the excess of moisture. New sunsilk with active ingredients from citrus extracts cleans the excess oil off hair while its nutrients deeply penetrate each hair strand to nourish it.Buying Rate of Consumers of Sunsilk Shampoo 7. b) Price UNILEVER claims to practice value-based pricing in which the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ perception of the productÃ¢â¬â¢s price provides a starting point for developing the marketing mix of the product. The research department determines this price usually by using focus groups. Th e price of Sunsilk shampoo sachets shows how the price also reflects a concern to make the purchase more convenient, since the rupee is denoted in this value. A present market price example of Sunsilk and Dove shampoo can easily show this Ã¢â¬â Sunsilk| Cost| **| Dove| Cost| 200ml| 140/=| **| 200ml| 170/=| 700ml| 500/=| **| 700ml| 600/=|Mini pack| 2/=| **| Mini pack| 3/=| So as per the market segmentation of shampoo in Bangladesh, Sunsilk (Unilever) provides same quantity of shampoo like other brands but comparatively in low price 7. c) Promotion There a number of ways to advertise both local and global brands in the market. Some of the very common means through which advertisement is done include: * Electronic Media: Electronic Media has been the major factor in determining the global success of Sunsilk. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world where an average middle class individual has access to 30 to 40 channels through the cable minimum, has the ability to view different types of advertisem ent just flipping the channels.Thus the consumer of today is so well posted on the fact that whenever a new product is launched, is it in the United Kingdom or in the United States, a consumer living in Asia would be well aware of the features of the products and he would know who the company is targeting. * Print Media: Print Media advertisement is one of the common ways of advertising. The print media including the magazines, newspapers and brochures are relied upon a lot. In print media, the importance of placing the advertisement plays an imperative part in increasing the sales of the product. * Billboards: Billboards have become one of the most influencing ways to advertise in our world. Everyone can see a whole advertisement like you watch on your own televisions or the type of moving and animated type of advertisements that you can see on the billboards happen to be very much in fashion.Sunsilk also has nearly all of its products on the billboards when either itÃ¢â¬â¢s laun ching a new ad, coming up with price promotions or re launching any product. These ads seem to be appearing all the time, which is really good for the company, as they are easily attracting the customers in every possible manner. * Giving out free Samples: When the new Sunsilk Black was introduced, what the company did was, to create awareness amongst the youth they went to schools and colleges and distributed free samples of the products and gave out little brochures which told the qualities that the product had and the proper method of getting a black and shiny hair look. 7. c. i) Media plan of Sunsilk January| February| March| April| May| June| July| August, September, October| November| December| Electronic Media| * | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | * | Print Media (weekly once)| * | * | * | * | * | * | * | | * | * | Billboards| | * | * | | | * | * | | * | * | Giving out free Samples| * | | | | * | | | * | | | Concert| | * | | * | | | | | | * | 7. c. ii) Creating an advertise fo r Sunsilk To create an advertisement is to make people (consumer) informed about a new product. Sometime products which are in market also use advertising to make selling rate high. Creating advertise for Sunsilk has to go through some certain steps to make a fruitful consequence. Such as Ã¢â¬â Select Objective (depends on productÃ¢â¬â¢s life cycle) Initiative or Persuasive or ReminderBudget Slogan Message Emotional / Funny /Rational Appeal / Romance / Entertainment / Fear / Humor Strategy Evaluate Media Reach, Frequency & Impact Alternatives Choosing Among Media Choosing Specific Media Select Specific Time * Step 1 : Select Objective In Selecting Objective steps Sunsilk stay in the Ã¢â¬ËMaturity StageÃ¢â¬â¢ of Product Life Cycle which required specific advertising objective Ã¢â¬ËLow PersuasiveÃ¢â¬â¢ Sunsilk Sales & Profit) (Initiative) (High (Low Persuasive) Persuasive) (Reminder) (Time) Product Product Product Product Product Develop Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Ã¢â¬ËLow PersuasiveÃ¢â¬â¢ objective works on Ã¢â¬â i. Building brand preference, ii. Encouraging switching to Sunsilk brand, iii. Changing customerÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of product value, iv. Persuading customers to purchase quick, v.Convince customers to tell others about Sunsilk specially. * Step 2 : Budget ProductÃ¢â¬â¢s company has to finance a budget. As an international consumer product producing organization under UNILEVER Sunsilk has ability to maintain a high rated budget plan. * Step 3 : Strategy The most critical step of advertising is Ã¢â¬ËStrategyÃ¢â¬â¢. It contains 2 particular part. Such as Ã¢â¬â a) Message b) Media a) Message: message contains 2 part called Slogan & Appeal. Slogan Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËNext GenerationÃ¢â¬â¢s ShampooÃ¢â¬â¢ Appeal Ã¢â¬â Sunsilk is a consumer product for hair which has deep emotional & romantic impact on human being. So to create advertise, emotional appeal can be chosen. ) Media : Reach, Frequency & Impact Choosi ng Among Media Choosing Specific Media Select Specific Time Reach, Frequency & Impact Ã¢â¬â Reach means how much people see the advertise total ; Frquency means how much people see the advertise at one time & Impact is the concequence of the advertisement, which is counted by TRP( Target Rating Program). Choosing Among Media Ã¢â¬â Media is the via to which advertise will be publish. For Sunsilk advertise media, T. V is the perfact media in case of Bangladesh. Choosing Specific Media Ã¢â¬â Sunsilk is an advertise for women, who aged 16 to 40. So have to choose those T. V channels which are regular to them.In Bangladesh ntv, Channel i, ETV,Bangla Vision, Channel 1, Machranga t. v, my t. v etc are prefarable for urban area & BTV must be prefarable for rural area. Select Specific Time Ã¢â¬â Select specific time refers to select that time when the specific audience remains infront of T. V. women generally watch T. V after 3pm to 9. 30pm for movie & daily serials. So SunsilkÃ¢ â¬â¢s advertise will telecest in this time mainly. * Step 4 : Evaluate Alternative This step to judge the quality of new advertises. If a positive result come, only then advertise will be telecast. 7. d) Place Distribution Objective: Ã¢â¬Å"To reach as many towns and villages as we canÃ¢â¬ UNILEVER has 150 distributors whose function is to sell to wholesalers directly. There are different distributors for different areas. They are carefully selected and their performance is constantly evaluated. * Wholesaler, * Merchant, * Broker, * RETAILERS Sunsilk goes to these stages such as- Wholesaler, Merchant, Broker & Retailers through wholesalers. Then they sell Sunsilk products to final customers as consumer product in retail price. Producer (Sunsilk) OR Producer (Sunsilk) (Sell) (Sell) Merchant (value add) Merchant (value add)Wholesaler Wholesaler Brokers (works for commission) Wholesaler Retailer Wholesaler Wholesaler Retailer Wholesaler Retailer Retailer 8. Market Scenario of Suns ilk 8. a) Target Market The main target market of Sunsilk is females between the ages group 16-40 belonging to the lower and middle income classes. But in their promotional activities, they cover the whole market irrespective of these classes. Sunsilk target its market on the basis of consumer buying behavior, income level, and purchasing power of people.For which quantity of the product can be changed according to the income and purchasing power of the consumers as in case of Sunsilk 120ml and 5ml packs are also available to target low income groups. 8. b) Market Share Sunsilk as a market competitor, they are steadily gaining market share. At present market situation is that Sunsilk owns 38% of the total market share. 8. c) Mind Share Too buy shampoo rational consumers firstly think about Sunsilk due to the promotional strategies of Sunsilk. So that Sunsilk rapidly increase their mind share. Figure: Mind Share 8. d) Heart Share Due to reach product and marketing attributes & featur es SunsilkÃ¢â¬â¢s mind share in total competitive market is higher than any other brand. Consumer would like to choose Sunsilk as their first choice. Figure: Heart Share 9.Competitive Strategies of Sunsilk 9. a) Defining the strategic objective: The Sunsilk Shampoo aims at fulfilling the needs of its target market by offering a high quality, assessment of the concept in terms of its acceptability, credibility and perceived benefits, that it offers a healthy choice shampoo alternative to the targeted consumer. The theme of the product shall be anchored around the motto. 9. b) Expanding the Total Market: Sunsilk is very sensitive to increase its market. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s sometime very challenging for a firm to expand its total market. Sunsilk basically wishes to increase new customer and more usage. 9. b. i) New customersSunsilk is trying to attract buyers who are unaware of the product or who are resisting it because lack of such features. Sunsilk is using market penetration strategy, ne w market segment strategy and geographical expansion strategy for searching new consumers. Very attractive advertising and other propositional activities perform a vital role in this case. 9. b. ii) More usage: Sunsilk recently increase the amount, level and frequency of consumption. It also improves packaging and redesigns the product. It offers larger package sizes and makes the product more available. They emphasize more on marketing program, which inform the consumer about the brand and it frequently develops the product which also spurs new uses. 9. b. iii) Regular Customers:Sunsilk knows that to continue regular customers is more important than to create new customers. So to hold regular customers, Sunsilk is always careful and makes a standard scale of own product. Sunsilk tried hard to situates or if possible as soon as possible increase the standard scale foe regular customers. 9. c) Choosing General Strategy: 9. c. i) Flank Attack: Sunsilk can follow segmental strategy. In market Head & shoulders targeting mainly high and middle class people but big portion in lower class consumer could not adopt their product. So, Sunslik targeting the lower class, who have lower income and launch new product at a lower price. 9. c. i) Frontal Attack: Sunsilk can launch new shampoo combining conditioner, anti-dandruff, and shinning in a one product as follow as Head & Shoulders. 9. C. iii) Bypass Attack: Sunsilk can introduce anti-dandruff shampoo and provide an extra conditioner in a package. 10. Competitive rivalry position of Sunsilk 10. a) Availability of Many/Equally Balance Competitors Sunsilk is no one most important rival of other brands such as, Dove , Head & Shoulder , Clinic All Clear , Pantine , Herbal Essences even Neutregena . But as because Sunsilk has a separate market , these other brands are not able that much to change Sunsilk Ã¢â¬Ës market price . EvenSunsilk is a great threat for them. Rate of Sunsilk Users 10. b) Industry growth declines Duri ng the production cycle, a product has to face these following stages: I. Introduction Stage II. Growth Stage III. Maturity Stage IV. Decline Stage Sunsilk has passed its introduction & growth stages successfully, now it is in its maturity stage. As we know that the maturity stage is the most competitive stage in production cycle. Sunsilk has to face a huge challenge in this stage . In maturity stage occasionally the industry growth slows down but sunsilk is able to hold its maturity stage by promoting new versions, new brand ambassador . new advertisement ,new offers etc .Such as , a 200ml Black shine Sunsilk Ã¢â¬Ës market price is 140Tk. where as the same amount of (200ml ) Dove shampoo Ã¢â¬Ës market price is 170TK. Customers are more biased to buy Sunsilk Black Shine rather than Dove ,though Sunsilk has reached its maturity stage . Maturity Stage of Sunsilk Is The Price Worth? (Market Price Of Sunsilk) . Production Cycle 10. c) BCG Marketing | Low Market Growth| High Market G rowth| HighMarket Share| | | LowMarketShare| | | 10. d) High Fixed Cost & Storage Cost of Sunsilk Sunsilk has 47 years business throughout the world, so itÃ¢â¬â¢s fixed cost isnÃ¢â¬â¢t too high as well as itÃ¢â¬â¢s storage cost is not that much high .And as we know that storage cost is one kind of fixed cost , so it is a advantage or positive power for Sunsilk , because other brands has a high storage cost & fixed cost because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have that much long duration of business life like Sunsilk. 10. e) Low Switching Cost of Sunsilk Sunsilk can be differentiating easily from other brands, because it has separate fragrance, separate color, most of all it has separate position in market as a well known shampoo. SunsilkÃ¢â¬â¢s switching cost is also very high there is no chance to increase its competitive rivalry by lacking of differentiation opportunities or low switching cost. 11. Threat of Substitution Product of SunsilkThe threat of substitute products is the extent to which alternative products or services may supplant or diminish the need for existing products or services. 11. a) BuyerÃ¢â¬â¢s Low Switching Cost As we know that 200ml Sunsilk shampooÃ¢â¬â¢s market price is 140Tk, where as Dove 200mlÃ¢â¬Ës price is 170 TK . So , we can see that buyers find Sunsilk more cheaper than Dove and other brands. Actually Sunsilk is a threat of substitute products to other brands. Sunsilk| Cost| **| Dove| Cost| 200ml| 140/=| **| 200ml| 170/=| 700ml| 500/=| **| 700ml| 600/=| Mini pack| 2/=| **| Mini pack| 3/=| 11. b) Substitute ProductÃ¢â¬â¢s Price is Lower This problem occurs if the other branded shampoo has cheaper market price than Sunsilk.So buyers are getting more attraction to buy other brands rather than Sunsilk shampoo in market. 11. c) Substitution ProductÃ¢â¬â¢s Quality & Performance is Greater / Equal to Existence Product It will be a threat for Sunsilk if other brands will have better quality than Sunsilk. To avoid this threat Sunsil k often offers new innovation on its production policy. Such as, Sunsilk made a deal with 7 famous hair experts of the world . This was a great attraction to the buyers. Buyers have found that no other brands offered such an excellent opportunity to beautify their hair condition. So a huge number of buyers continued to use Sunsilk & shift from other brands to Sunsilk. 12. THE POWER OF BUYERSThe power of buyers is the extent to which buyers of any product or services in an industry have the ability to influence the suppliers of that product or services. The bargaining position of buyers changes with time and a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s (and industry's) competitive strategy. The buyer's power is significant for Sunsilk because when the power of buyers increase, buyers can force prices down, demand higher quality products or services and in essence, play competitors against one another, all resulting in potential loss of industry profits. Buyers exercise more power when Ã¢â¬â 12. a) Buyers a re larger and few in number In case of Ã¢â¬ËSunsilk productÃ¢â¬â¢ the buyers are larger and few in number mean the number of buyers is few but they purchase in a huge numbers. This situation does not occur normally.Because buyers (consumer) of Sunsilk are not few and do not buy in large amount. Buyers are large in number and they buy in small amount for them. This is an advantage for Sunsilk product and a disadvantage for buyers. 12. b) Buyers Purchase a Large Portion of an IndustryÃ¢â¬â¢s Total Output In this situation buyer buy a large portion of the whole output of the industry. It automatically makes the buyer powerful. Here the buyers mean the shopkeepers who bought in a large amount for sell from Sunsilk. They can force prices down, demand higher quality products or services, in essence play competitors against one another, all resulting in potential loss of industry profits.But in case of Sunsilk there is no chance to happen this situation because Sunsilk has a lot of b uyers who purchase in huge volume. This is an advantage for Sunsilk. 12. C) Buyers switching costs low When other competitive productÃ¢â¬â¢s costs lower than Sunsilk, it is easy to switch to another product. But it cannot happen because Sunsilk gives the best quality shampoo in fewer prices at the same amount. For example here we compare dove shampooÃ¢â¬â¢s price with Sunsilk shampoo. 12. d) Buyers can pose threat to integrate backward into SellerÃ¢â¬â¢s Industry Buyers can pose threat to integrate backward into the sellerÃ¢â¬â¢s industry if buyers worked as a group.Group of buyers can act threat to integrate backward into the industry. Sunsilk has individual buyers, so there is no chance to face any threat from buyers for Sunsilk and it is also an advantage for this industry which is a disadvantage to its buyers. At last it is to analyze that Sunsilk is a large and famous industry and for these qualifications and financial capability Sunsilk can overcome the power of buyers . 13. THE POWER OF SUPPLIERS 13. a) Suppliers are large and few in number It means the number of suppliers is few but they supply in a huge numbers. When this situation occurred suppliers must increase their demand against the buyer (industry), so the industry faces lose at large.But it is not possible with Sunsilk because as a large industry Sunsilk keeps the number of suppliers many and they supply in small amount. So there is no way to exercise more power to suppliers of Sunsilk. It is an advantage to Sunsilk and a disadvantage to suppliers. 13. b) Suitable Substitution Products Are Not Available Suitable substitution products are not available described the situation when there are lack of substitution products. Sunsilk use many ingredients in making, so when this situation occurs Sunsilk must switch to another substitution. Such as Sunsilk use Ã¢â¬Ëchemical essenceÃ¢â¬â¢ for smell and this ingredient is available all time because any supplier can supply it.Or if the lack of substitution product happens anyhow, Sunsilk switch to other chemical essence or something else which can fulfill Sunsilk productÃ¢â¬â¢s requirement. So Sunsilk never give chance to become the suppliers powerful 13. c) Individual Buyers Are Not Large Customers of Suppliers When any producer purchases ingredients from suppliers, he becomes a buyer of those suppliers and if the buyer purchase at low volume he does not get any advantage from suppliers. In case of Sunsilk, it needs huge volume of ingredients from suppliers as buyer. So there is no way to be ignored by suppliers when the buyer is the famous & large Sunsilk. 13. d) Suppliers Goods Are Critical to BuyerÃ¢â¬â¢s SuccessThe main ingredient supplier of any product is called critical supplier of that product. For assumption we take the Sunsilk Co-Creation Stunning Black Shine Shampoo, which use many chamials as main ingredient such asS204, sodium loreth sulphet, carbomied, panthalon etc and it is easy to get that ingredien tÃ¢â¬â¢s supply and also supplier. So critical supplierÃ¢â¬â¢s good cannot create any harm to Sunsilk. 13. e) SupplierÃ¢â¬â¢s Products Create High Switching Cost SupplierÃ¢â¬â¢s products create high switching cost means industry needs to pay more if wants to switch to another supplier. In case of sunsilk this problem does not occur. There is a lot of suppliers for supplierÃ¢â¬â¢s product of Sunsilk because of being a large and famous industry.So there is no chance of high switching cost of supplierÃ¢â¬â¢s product. 13. f) Suppliers Can Pose Threat to Forward Integration to BuyerÃ¢â¬â¢s Industry Suppliers can pose threat to integrate to the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s industry if suppliers worked as a group. Group of suppliers can act threat to integrate to the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s industry. Sunsilk has individual suppliers, so there is no chance to face any threat from suppliers for Sunsilk and it is also an advantage for this industry which is a disadvantage to its suppliers. At last it is to analyze that Sunsilk is a large and famous industry and for these qualifications and financial capability Sunsilk can overcome the power of suppliers. 14. SWOT AnalysisSWOT analysis is the easiest way to find out the Strengths, Weakness, and Opportunities & Threats of any industry. As an international company Sunsilk has also those. This analysis identified the Ã¢â¬ËStrengthsÃ¢â¬â¢ to fill the Ã¢â¬ËWeaknessÃ¢â¬â¢ of industry. to make the proper use of Ã¢â¬ËOpportunityÃ¢â¬â¢ and create consciousness for the Ã¢â¬ËThreatsÃ¢â¬â¢ in industry. SWOT analysis of Sunsilk is Ã¢â¬â 14. a) STRENGTHES * UNILEVERs Limited is one of the largest organizations in India. * Company has advanced technology and well skilled professionals. * The New Sunsilk Shampoo is a high quality product in terms of hair protection. * The target market is educated, professionals and belongs to premium and middle class. Company totally owned, systematic distribution network, transparent communi cation system. * Participative management style * Very good distribution network all over India, in all major and small cities. 14. b) WEAKNESSES * Competitor has strong promotional activities. * Customers are offered better alternatives by the competition. * Advertisement flaws- * Devaluation of product * ProductÃ¢â¬â¢s quality loses its values * Poor promotion of free samples * No unique identification of product 14. c) OPPORTUNITIES * Population expanding at a rapid rate. * Consumers are becoming more quality conscious * Current capacity utilization is 80%, which can be further broadened with the increase in demand. Customer base is increasing with effective marketing. * Baby shampoo is another area where HINDUSTAN UNILEVERs can make huge gains. * Shampoo plus conditioner and anti-dandruff shampoos are another area where UNILEVER can earn huge profits. * Rural areas are a large prospective market where they can introduce Sunsilk. 14. d) THREATS * Political and Economic factors. * Partial Government policies. * High rate of competition. * Local and Foreign competition. 15. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. The Sunsilk is a global company and each country has own culture, so Sunsilk should drive according to local preferences and needs because it is really necessary in today economic crisis to capture huge market share.Sunsilk can arise and ensure social responsibility in the society, so they would establish themselves in customer mind and customer would be loyal about Sunsilk. To ensure social responsibility and highlighting benefits they provide Sunsilk can raise their revenue. Sunsilk must focus on social responsibility, to maintain image among customers, mainly advertisement covers huge expenses of Sunsilk, but we recommend them to cut their advertisement expenditures, in the economic crisis and should more focus on social responsibility. To ensure social responsibility and highlighting benefits they provide Sunsilk can raise their revenue. Figure: Sales revenue and s ocial responsibility 2. People are familiar with Sunsilk, however they are not interested in whether it is a unilever product or not.Through extensive marketing methods unilever should make people aware of the fact that it is a Unilever Product and not just any product so that the brand loyalty increases and people purchase its product due to its brand name and not just the product name. 16. Conclusion Sunsilk has huge potential of rural market 72% of total population but not yet develop a successful strategy to penetrate this market. The success of Sunsilk emulated which captured the rural market by two strategies- Develop strong distribution structure and Adopting packaging and pricing. Sunsilk increase buying of raw material so that it does not have to suffer devolution and continuously increase in tariff rates.They introduced a smaller 100mi pack of Sunsilk in order to capture lower income segment. Sunsilk enter into web marketing. They should increase frequencies of advertising by electronic and print media. They should introduce 2 in 1 shampoo plus conditioner which demand huge potential market. Finally, taking everything in account we can say that if Sunsilk emphasize more on social responsibility and create more attractive marketing programs, they can grab huge number of customers. 17. Annexure * www. unilever. com * www. unilever. com. pk * www. millwardbrown. com * www. google. com * www. wikipedia. com * www. ac. com * Unilever financial statement 2007-08 * www. scribd. com * www. slideshare. net
Thursday, January 9, 2020
What You Need to Know About Fast Food Essay Topics The Hidden Treasure of Fast Food Essay Topics Fast food is called junk food because of its deficiency of nutrition and an excessive amount of chemical flavor that are bad for our wellbeing. It being rich in salt, adversely affects the heart health and the overall health of an individual. Eating fast food may bring about skin issues like acne. Eating high-carb quick food increases your blood glucose. On the opposing side, saturated fats are bad fat which can't be burned and remain in our entire body. The high carbohydrates content in bun and rice can cause our bodies inability to create the sum of insulin necessary to cope with the degree of sugar produced after a meal. Eating plenty of food that has high carbohydrates like bun and rice can bring about diabetes. Finally, junk foods should be banned since they're unhealthy diet since they are lack in nutritional value (Health Foundation 2005). What You Don't Know About Fast Food Essay Topics The articles are created from scratch according to the user's requirements. Such essays are the most fascinating ones due to the fact that they reflect the realities of the modern world and highlight issues that concern a great deal of individuals. You might also attempt sharing your essay with different people and receiving their thoughts. Top Choices of Fast Food Essay Topics It's not unusual to read about quick food outlets that were closed down because of poor hygiene, and that's just those which were caught! Individuals who eat fast food despite knowing that it's unhealthy may quit eating it in case the government makes it unaffordable by increasing taxes on it. Be aware that the paragraph finishes by proving'' the claim within the subject sentence, that lots of fast-food chains earn their profits from including a distinctive ingredient known as secret sauce'' to their foods. In addition, quick food are always prepared at fast speed, meaning the customer doesn't need to wait around for quite a while for their purchase. The majority of the items sold in food outlets have a large quantity of fats, sugar, and are full of calories. You weigh your choices carefully. Lies You've Been Told About Fast Food Essay Topics College application essay is not too lengthy. Students have already written so many essays on several topics that a number of them can be very extraordinary and unusual. The subject of your essay ought to be in a position to reflect your know-how of what you've learned. The essay can provide a great chance to chat about a few of your accomplishments, but always make sure you do so in a sense that's not braggadocious. So that your essay should be quite impressive. Don't be scared to let your essay do something similar. Okay, you own a topic, a working thesis statement, and a couple quick food articles to begin your research. Keep in mind, research is the thing that makes an essay stick out among other essays. Our essay writing service supplies a comprehensive degree of help we'll write your essay from begin to finish, which means that you'll have a fantastic bit of work to hand in once the deadline rolls around. Even essays written employing the stream of consciousness technique have a specific goal at the conclusion of the essay. Up in Arms About Fast Food Essay Topics? Most flavors in fast food are created from chemical. The procedure for preparing the speedy food utilizing fat deep frying makes the food gets oily. Unfortunately, it is not healthy food. The majority of the quick food are pre-prepared and then go through a very simple procedure to accelerate their expert services. Imagine that you're an owner of a quick food restaurant. Traditionally prepared food is comparatively costly and more time-consuming to prepare but it's certainly healthy. Thus, think twice once you choose to visit a fast food restaurant. Although fast food restaurants make delicious food, they ought to be avoided as they're harmful to human well-being. Added with their delivery services and quick services, it isn't only convenient but also fast to save times if we are in the rush. There are plenty of places where you're able to turn to in the event you require quick help. Unfortunately a quick food essay is something that you will need to complete if you're to score excellent grades in school so there's not any way around handing it in. If you are able to learn to write a college essay the effortless way, you'll be in a position to conserve a great deal of time. The Definitive Approach to Fast Food Essay Topics Although fast food entered our everyday lives quite a little while before, it still is among the most essential social issues that. In conclusion, fast foods have a negative influence on nearly all facets of our life and the surroundings. They are one of the main causes of obesity, heart disease, and diabetes hence why many people face cancer, death, and many more. As an example, speedy food and the way that it affects people's lives is among the problems that are hotly debated nowadays.
Wednesday, January 1, 2020
We live in a consumer culture where products and services such as diet pills, slimming creams, weight loss products that tone fat without exercise, liposuction and cosmetic surgery, are just a few of the popular methods that are promoted by advertisers to help people in achieving their ideal body image. Advertisements draw attention to a host of ideologies, by offering products and services that attract consumers who oblige their bodies, minds and souls to achieving the ideal appearance of beauty. Advertisements are present where ever we go, they are present on buses, billboards, in malls, magazines and many more. Advertisements all serve the same purpose of promoting and selling products and services that strive to help people,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This paper will focus primarily on Korean advertisements for beauty, because unlike Canada, South Korea is ranked number one in the world for having the highest number of cosmetic surgeries done per capita (Korea Bang). Korean culture believes in extreme beauty methods because Ã¢â¬Å"a personÃ¢â¬â¢s success or failure is highly determined by facial looks which makes plastic surgery a worthwhile investmentÃ¢â¬ (Unbelievable Facts). Many Koreans undergo cosmetic surgery in order to achieve a westernized look, which includes, fair smooth skin, big eyes with double lids, a tiny nose, and a small face with a V-shaped chin (Featherstone 2013). Now that this paper has explained the root of cosmetic surgery in Korea, this paper will analyze various cosmetic surgery advertisements related to facial and body reconstruction. The advertisement to the right is one of the many cosmetic advertisements found in South KoreaÃ¢â¬â¢s subway stations in Seoul. This promotional advertising ad promotes that beauty can be achieved through cosmetic surgery. The denotative meaning of this advertisement is that no matter how unattractive you may look, you are guaranteed to have a positive, youthful and attractive after photo (Willett 2013). This advertisement is implying that with the proper tools, you can achieve your ideal perspective of beauty, while embracing your fresh, newShow MoreRelated Weight-Loss and the Weight of the Media Essay1729 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWeight-Loss and the Weight of the Media Ã Ã Ã Ã The media bombards us with advertisements and articles about weight-loss supplements. We cannot turn on the television or radio without seeing or hearing an advertisement for Dexatrim, and we cannot flip through a magazine without seeing an advertisement or article about Metabolife. The manner in which different media sources treat weight-loss supplements greatly influences the publics perception of these products. This essay will examine a NewsweekRead MoreThe Health And Weight Loss963 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesquestion by saying that the company read your mind and was fulfilling your desire to lose weight while still indulging in your favorite beverage. However, the relationship between you and the food giants is quite the opposite. What you think is healthy or unhealthy is based on research funded by companies that profit off of your food choices, - currently, much of the research regarding health and weight loss is funded by companies such as Coca Cola and Kellogg- there fore therefore, you are the oneRead MoreDieting On Weight Loss And Weight Management3070 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesAdrianne Sautter SCI 354B T/R 7:30PM 8 June 2015 The Effectiveness of Dieting on Weight Loss and Weight Management Dieting has been a staple in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society for as long as we can remember. Everyone wants to be model thin, have the body of a movie star, or have the muscles of a body builder. It is nothing new that people want to improve their appearance and their overall health by losing a few pounds, but with all of the Ã¢â¬Å"trendyÃ¢â¬ diets it is hard for people to know what is actually good for theirRead MoreThe Need For Loss Of Weight Essay1360 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe need for loss of weight is a very common issue in the world today. Losing weight is usually a goal made on New Years and forgotten after that time. The truth is that you will have to make many changes to lose weight and keep it off. The 10-day diets only are temporary and most of them take nutrients and other important components from your body that cannot be replenished. Your first goal when trying to lose weight is to make a plan and stick to it. This includes changing your diet and exerciseRead MoreWeight Los s and Hypnosis2028 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesWeight issues are a delicate matter for everyone and especially in United Kingdom. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s particularly important to understand the emotional issues behind the weight gain as well as the bad habits that have been picked up over the years. However hypnosis has these days become increasingly popular with weight loss and uses suggestions to change a persons behaviour and eating habits in order to facilitate weight loss. Hypnosis specify that its purpose is not only lose weight but to also maintain thatRead MoreWeight Loss And Extreme Diets1051 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHow many time has someone started a popular weight loss diet and it either didnÃ¢â¬â¢t work, or the results didnÃ¢â¬â¢t last long before the weight loss came right back? In America now, there are over 30 states that have 25% or more of the adults and children that are overweight or obese (Cleveland State University, 2013, p. 217). Since the beginning of this obesity epidemic , the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases have increased over the years (Cordain, 2011, pp. 5-7). This results in new fad dietsRead MoreWeight Loss Supplements : Analysis1192 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescurvy body and worships skin and bones there are various weight loss supplements, programs and exercise routines to help individuals achieve that ever desired appearance. One weight loss supplement is featured in the August 2015 issue of Family Circle magazine, a supplement powder called Almased. The advertisement for this product is meant to appeal to the eyes and needs of its target audience, the multitude of people trying to lose weight or become healthy; however, upon closer analysis of the advertisementRead MoreWeight Loss Pills And Its Effects1367 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAbstract Weight loss pills have been a very popular for Americans for a faster way to lose weight. These pills have been promoted in TV by trainers promising a fast safe, and easy way to become thin in a short amount of time. This literature review will help the reader understand Thermogenic pills, and the content these pills contain to produce fast results. Thermogenic Pills: A review of the Literature Fat Burners or Thermogenic pills have become popular in the United StatesRead MoreThe New Weight Loss Pill1892 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages1. Problem Statement: CSP is faced with a decision to come up with the best pricing strategy for the launch of their new weight loss pill named Metabical in order to better address the needs and wants of their targeted consumers and optimize profit. 2. Situation Analysis: Company Ã¢â¬ ¢ 400 million in Research and Development for the new diet pill Metabical Ã¢â¬ ¢ Highly experienced marketing manager (20years in the pharmaceutical field) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Metabical is FDA approved Ã¢â¬ ¢ Metabical is the first prescriptionRead MoreMethods for Weight Loss Essays822 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbillion. There is a push across the country for Americans to get healthy. The business of weight loss is a $40 - $50 billion industry with many paths to shedding those unwanted pounds. Be it a fad diet, a surgery for weight loss, a support program or good old diet and exercise; the path to losing weight and getting healthy is achievable with hard work and determination. Of the many ways to lose weight, fad diets can be the most dangerous. These diets rely on a gimmicks to attract dieters and